The accuracy of a biomarker test is evaluated in terms of its sensitivity detection of disease when disease is truly present ie identifying true positives and its specificity recognition of absence of disease when disease is truly absent ie identifying true negatives at select cutpoints several cvd biomarkers are continuously distributed quantitative variables although there are some notable exceptions for example gender race diabetes hypertension genotypes it is therefore . Nonglycemic biomarkers such as blood lipids and markers of kidney dysfunction cardiac injury hemodynamic stress inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis have a role in cardiovascular disease prognostication several novel and emerging biomarkers are under investigation and hold promise for future clinical use recently published and ongoing cardiovascular outcomes trials in patients with diabetes will also help to inform the use of markers of injury and prognosis in this population. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin ngal as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease kevin damman mattia a e valente pages 407 423 plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone as markers of heart disease and mortality in older men. Biomarkers play an important role in the diagnosis prognostic assessment and management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes acs specific biomarkers identify different components of the pathophysiology of acs troponins are prototype markers of myocyte necrosis natriuretic peptides reflect neurohormonal activation and hemodynamic stress soluble cd40 ligand is an indicator of platelet activation and c reactive protein myeloperoxidase and monocyte chemoattractant
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